Barker, R. L. (2003). The Social Work Dictionary (5th ed.). Washington, DC: NASW Press.
From pp. 353-354:
- qualitative research: "Systematic investigations that include inductive, in-depth, nonquantitative studies of individuals, groups, organizations, or communities. Examples include field study, ethnography, and historiography."
- quantitative research: "Systematic investigations that include descriptive or inferential statistical analysis. Examples are experiments, survey research, and investigations that make use of numerical comparisons."
VandenBos, G. R. (Ed.) (2007). APA dictionary of psychology. Washington, DC: American Psychological Association.
- qualitative data: "data that are not expressed numerically, such as descriptions of behavior and experience. If desired, qualitative data can often be expressed quantitatively..."
- quantitative data: "data expressed numerically, such as test scores or measurements of length or width..."